3D MMS Initiative

Cranial & Postcranial Three-Dimensional Interactive Learning Instrument


This project serves as a teaching tool focusing on cranial and postcranial variations that are not well represented in digital archives. Forensic science methodology has been continuously pushed to be more accurate and consistent in scoring protocols, something that takes practice and experience. With new methodology comes inconsistencies of application, an issue that could be partially rectified by this online learning tool. 3D MMS allows for in-depth method instruction through a new, interactive medium allowing students to see these visual 3D traits alongside the previously conceived trait definitions.

This program can assist individuals in collecting data with previously created data analysis programs (i.e. MaMD Analytical & Combo MaMD Analytical). Being open concurrently with the these programs will allow users to compare the skeleton they are scoring to the 3D examples. Currently, there are limited teaching resources available online due to the sensitive nature and ethical concerns of sharing 3D models of human skeletal material with which comes limited accessibility to learning protocols in forensic anthropology.

Variation definitions are taken from Hefner 2009 and Spiros 2019.

Please do not associate any single variation with a single population. That is a typological, outdated approach that is not condoned by the creator of this website.

Choose the area on the skeleton below to direct you to 3D scans of that bone.